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In 1657, and again in 1706, the town and castle were captured by the Swedes during their invasions of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth.In an attack from the other direction, on January 13, 1660 the invading Muscovite Russian army under Ivan Andreyevich Khovansky took the Brest Castle in a surprise early morning attack, the town having been captured earlier, and massacred the 1,700 defenders and their families (according to captain Rosestein, Austrian observer).Brest's coat of arms features an arrow pointed upwards and a bow (both silver) on a sky-blue shield. Later it was part of the territory of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania.In 1390 Brest became the first city in the lands that now comprise Belarus to receive Magdeburg rights.As a result of the Partitions of Poland, it was incorporated into the Russian Empire in 1795.After World War I, the city returned to Second Polish Republic.During medieval times, the city was part of the Kingdom of Poland from 1020 until 1319 when it was taken by the Grand Duchy of Lithuania.It became part of the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth in 1569.
The 1596 council established the Uniate Church (known also as the Belarusian Greek Catholic Church in Belarus and Ukrainian Greek Catholic Church in Ukraine).
During the Invasion of Poland by Nazi Germany and the Soviet Union in 1939 the city was first captured by the Wehrmacht and soon passed on to the USSR in accordance with German–Soviet Frontier Treaty.