The Christian minorities, including Greeks, saw their position in the Empire deteriorate.
Crete was once again the flashpoint of Greek and Turkish aspirations.
This policy was called the Great Idea (Megali Idea).
Constantinople had been the capital of the Eastern half of the Roman Empire until its fall to the Turks in 1453. The Empire was considered by the European powers as 'the sick man of Europe', but since these powers were irreconcilably divided over the fate of the Ottoman lands, their intrigues both reduced its territorial hold but also kept delaying its collapse.
The First Balkan War of 1912–1913 was a direct consequence of the mounting tension, as a result of which Greece seized Crete, the islands, the rest of Thessaly and Epirus, and coastal Macedonia from the Ottomans, in alliance with Serbia and Bulgaria.
Also, in 1300 conflicts between Ottomans and Byzantines started too.In addition Lambros Katsonis fleet began harassing the Ottoman fleet in the Aegean Sea. In March 1821, the Greek War of Independence from the Ottoman Empire began.The Greeks formally declared their independence in January 1822, and after the Battle of Navarino in 1827, the establishment of a Greek state was recognized in the London Protocol of 1828.The relations between the Greek and the Turkish states have been marked by alternating periods of mutual hostility and reconciliation ever since Greece won its independence from the Ottoman Empire in 1832.