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Fungal and bacterial diversity in biofilms isolated from rubber seals of 24 different household dishwashers was investigated using next-generation sequencing.Bacterial genera such as , also known to include opportunistic pathogenic representatives.The selection pressure within some of these environments is reflected in reduced microbial diversity, allowing only the most fit species to withstand the stressful conditions. Among the different household ecosystems studied so far, kitchens are colonized by the broadest diversity of extremotolerant microorganisms (19–21).
However, microbial communities in extreme environments in households and common household appliances have only been studied fairly recently. Gunde-Cimerman, presented at ISHAM, Guangzhou, China, 2013), automated teller machines (11), coffee machines (12), washing machines (13, 14), and dishwashers (15–18), have gained momentum.
The predicted number of bacterial genera ranged from 29 to 150 across all samples and that of the fungal genera ranged from 15 to 104 (see Table S1 in the supplemental material).
Alpha diversity indices were calculated based on rarefied sequences and are presented (see Table S2 in the supplemental material).
IMPORTANCE Worldwide demand for household appliances, such as dishwashers and washing machines, is increasing, as is the number of immunocompromised individuals.
The harsh conditions in household dishwashers should prevent the growth of most microorganisms.
Pairwise correlations in tested microbiomes showed that certain bacterial groups cooccur, as did the fungal groups.